Leptotriks (Leptothrix from Leptos + thrix-thin hair) or in modern terminology leptotrihiya (Leptotrichia) – anaerobic gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of Fusobacteriaceae, forming a thin thread, or “chain” ( trichomes) and ends with segmented bead in the center of a diameter of 0.2 – 0.4 micron, and which do not branch not bud. For leptoriksa characteristic microscopic feature – the “dot-dash”. Optimal growth of the microorganism occurs in the presence of elevated CO2.
leptotrichosis not treat diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and vaginal men leptotrichosis not transmitted. But why, you ask, questions related to leptotriksom treated on site on sexual infections?
First leptotriks often found in mixed (mixed) genital infections – trichomoniasis, chlamydia, candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis – ie, detect it (and it is easily diagnosed by microscopy) should alert the doctor and to provide further and more in-depth survey (PCR, bacteriological culture). Secondly leptotrichosis oropharynx referred to as HIV-associated diseases (as it often occurs in patients with a significant decrease in immunity, cancer patients, patients with diseases of the blood).
The third recent study role installed leptotriksa (in modern terminology – leptotrihii) in horiamnionitov development samproizvolnyh abortion, puerperal sepsis, bacteremia and septic arthritis novrozhdennymi.
What diseases are associated with leptotriksom?
Called Leptotrichia buccalis. Finding leptortiksa in the mouth a common finding in children. According to some microbial contamination Leptotrichia species observed in more than 40% of children under one year. Leptotrichia buccalis consider congenital oral microflora. Leptotrichia buccalis been reported due to endocarditis in patients with Down syndrome and bacteremia in children and adults with neutropenia.
Main pryavleniya leptotrichosis oropharynx appearance of gray spots and (or) white-gray plaque arising on the palatal handles, tonsils, tongue.
Called several varieties Leptotrichia spp.Vyyavlyaetsya approximately 4% of women. It appears as gray spots on the walls of the vagina and insignificant gray precipitates. Recently, we established a connection between colonization leptotriksom and bacterial vaginosis, which allowed some researchers consider it a specific marker of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. There are studies showing an association leptotrihy and urogenital trichomoniasis. It is believed that a predisposing factor for the development of vaginal leptotrichosis is the use of intrauterine devices.
Horiamnionit and bacteremia associated with Leptotrichia
In 2002, Sanjay K. Shukla Paul R. Meier et al isolated from amniotic fluid kind Leptotrichia sanguinegens. After studying the link has been established between this type of infection and the occurrence of Leptotrichia horiamnionitov women and the development of bacteremia in novrozhdennymi. As for genotypic properties of a microorganism different from Leptotrichia sanguinegens, he was in a separate view and called Leptotrichia amnionii. Currently reliably proven that infection with L. amnionii is one of the reasons horiamnionitov, premature termination of pregnancy, low fetal weight and puerperal sepsis especially in immunocompromised women.
How diagnosed and treated leptotrichosis?
The diagnosis settles on the characteristic microscopic picture: the discovery of bacteria in the form of chains of dot-dash.
To confirm the diagnosis of diseases associated with Leptotrichia amnionii used bacteriological culture (unlike other leptotrihy it is not cultivated on blood agar) and PCR (16S rDNA).
The standard treatment leptotrichosis not currently razrabotano.V typically used antibiotikoterapiya.Otmechena leptotrihy sensitivity to beta-lactams, clindamycin, metranidazol, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and resistance to macrolides, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones.