Malignant pleural mesothelioma
Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura (malignant mesothelioma) – a rare, but extremely dangerous cancer. Most often it is diagnosed in people who, because of their professional activities have contact with asbestos. More than 70 percent of cases – men, however, the disease occurs among women, and children 2-4 years with asbestos poisoning.
The symptoms of malignant pleural mesothelioma occur a long time in a latent form and can occur in 20-30 and sometimes 60 years, making it difficult to diagnose and treat. Diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. Conducting diagnosis of pleural cancer is complicated due to the slow onset of the disease. Most patients go to the oncologist to have unresectable stage where none of the methods can have a significant impact on the development of cancer cells.
For the correct diagnosis used visual inspection, X-ray, and gistogologicheskoe endosokopicheskoe study. This should eliminate asbestny pleural effusion, pleural fibrosis, asbestosis and lung metastatic adenocarcinoma.
ultrasound diagnosis allows to detect in patients with mesothelioma pleural effusion, as well as to determine the extent of tumor and its sprouting in the neighboring organs and peritoneum. X-ray examination confirms the presence of thickened lesions in the pleura, preload one of the lungs and pleural effusion. MRI and positron emission tomography are used as helper methods to determine the condition of organs and systems in the vicinity of the affected lung.
The puncture of the pleura is conducted to collect pleural effusion and its further analysis. Changes in its structure downward glucose and increasing amounts of hyaluronic acid confirms the diagnosis of cancer of the pleura. The use of biopsy is ineffective, since cancer cells are found mainly in remote areas for the blind biopsy of the pleura.
Endoscopy (thoracoscopy) – method, enabling accurate diagnosis, through direct visual control. In addition, prior to radical surgery, it is possible to determine the zone targeted biopsy. Diagnosis using madiastinoskopii allows in most cases to detect lymph nodes affected by cancer cells, which can not be detected using MRI.
The use of the whole complex of the available diagnostic methods allowing accurate diagnosis and determine the stage of cancer of the pleura.
- The initial stage is characterized by single nodes and plaques. Malignant formation without affecting deep-lying tissue and lymph nodes.
- The second stage is characterized by a profound and multiple nodes, penetrating into the underlying layers.
- In the third stage, affected, in addition to the pleura, the regional lymph nodes and located beside Orany.
- The fourth stage is characterized by the presence of metastases in distant organs and systems, and the overall defeat of the whole body.